Full Title: Inhibitory effects of wild blueberry anthocyanins and other flavonoids on biomarkers of acute and chronic inflammation in vitro
Journal: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Year of Publication: 2014
Wild lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait) are a rich source of anthocyanins and other flavonoids with anti-inflammatory activities; however, their individual effects on cellular signaling remain to be elucidated. This study determined the capacity of blueberry bioactives to protect murine RAW 264.7 macrophages from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Fractionation of the crude extract (CE) into polyphenol-rich (PPR), anthocyanin-rich (ANC), and proanthocyanidin-rich (PAC) fractions and an ethyl acetate fraction (EA) revealed that PPR, ANC, and PAC components most effectively suppressed mRNA biomarkers of acute inflammation (Cox-2, iNOS, and IL-1β). Among major polyphenols found in the wild blueberries, malvidin-3-glucoside was significantly more effective than epicatechin or chlorogenic acid in reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in vitro.
Link to Article: http://pubs.acs.org.prox.lib.ncsu.edu/doi/ipdf/10.1021/jf4051599