Full Title: Carotenoids Stability During Dry-Milling, Storage and Extrusion Processing of Biofortified Maize Genotypes
Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
Year of Publication: 2018
Publication Author(s): Darwin Ortiz, Amudhan Ponrajan, Juan Pablo Bonnet, Torbert Rocheford, Mario G Ferruzzi
Translation of the breeding efforts designed to biofortify maize (Z. mays) genotypes with higher levels of provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC) content for sub-Saharan Africa is dependent in part on the stability of carotenoids during post-harvest through industrial and in-home food processing operations. The purpose of this study was to simulate production of commercial milled products by determining the impact of dry-milling and extrusion processing on carotenoid stability in three higher pVAC maize genotypes (C17xDE3, Orange ISO, Hi27xCML328). Pericarp and germ removal of biofortified maize kernels resulted in a ~10% loss of total carotenoids. Separating out the maize flour fraction (<212 µm) resulted in an additional ~15% loss of total carotenoids. Carotenoid degradation was similar across milled maize fractions. Dry milled products of Orange ISO and Hi27xCML328 genotypes showed a ~28% pVAC loss after 90-day storage. Genotype C17xDE3, with highest levels of all- trans-β-carotene, showed a 68% pVAC loss after 90-day storage. Extrusion processing conditions were optimal at 35% extrusion moisture, producing fully-cooked instant maize flours with high pVAC retention (70-93%). These results support the notion that post-harvest losses in maize milled fractions may be dependent, in part, on genotype and extrusion processing may provide an option for preserving biofortified maize products.
Link to Article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29543454