Full Title: Bioavailability and metabolism of bioactive compounds from foods
Book: Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease (Fourth Edition)
Year of Publication: 2017
Publication Author(s): Andrew P Neilson, Katheryn M Goodrich, Mario G Ferruzzi
Bioactive components present in edible plants are of particular interest for the prevention of disease. Their prevalence in diet and supplements has the potential to impact human health on both the individual and population level. Dietary phytochemicals can be generally classified into two distinct classes based on their absorption properties: water-soluble (e.g., phenolics and polyphenols) and lipid-soluble (e.g., carotenoids and tocochromanols). The bioavailability of dietary phytochemicals is a measurement of their prevalence in body fluids and exposure to tissues following consumption, and is often considered when assessing their potential for beneficial activity. Interest in the biological activities and resultant health benefits from phytochemical-rich foods has generated great interest in the elucidation of factors that impact their bioavailability. The aim of such research is primarily to identify food factors (macro- and microcomposition, physical form, phytochemical concentration, etc.) and physiological factors (stability, digestion, absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion processes) that can limit or promote bioavailability. More recently, the impact of health status on the absorption and metabolism of dietary phytochemicals has drawn increased attention as modification of bioavailability may complicate translation of potential benefits from these compounds to at-risk populations. Knowledge of these factors is used to improve strategies that promote optimal bioavailability of dietary phytochemicals, and by extension, their activities at the tissue of interest. This chapter will briefly discuss the factors contributing to the bioavailability of dietary phytochemicals, as well as the measurement of bioavailability and its implications on health and disease.