Glossary

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A

Adipogenesis: formation of fat and/or fatty tissue

Alkaloid: a member of a large group of chemicals made by plants that contain nitrogen

Amino Acid: simple, organic compounds that are used as the building blocks of peptides and proteins. There are more than fifty amino acids that can be categorized as essential, nonessential, and conditional

Anthocyanin: member of the antioxidant (phytochemical) family of flavonoids. Responsible for the red, blue, and purple colors in many fruits and vegetables.

Arginine: nonessential amino acid plays a role in production of protein and creatine

Ascorbic Acid: Vitamin C

B

Bifidobacteria: naturally occurring bacteria found in the gut. A probiotic that aid in good digestion, boost immune system function, and control the pH of the gut.

C

Carotenoids: any of the varying yellow to red pigments found in plants

Catechin: type of phenol and antioxidant, part of the flavonoid family

Citrulline: amino acid produced by arginine in the kidneys, plays a role upon blood pressure

Cytokine: a class of proteins that work to regulate the immune system and are released by cells

D

Delphinidin: an antioxidant and a natural plant pigment that gives plants a blue hue

E

Ellagitannins: a diverse class of tannins that are a type of polyphenols

Epithelium: layers of cells

F

Flavonols: a class of flavonoids that work as antioxidants

Flavonoids: most common polyphenol family found in the human diet. There have been over 6,000 flavonoids identified

Functional Food: a food that is given additional function as it relation to health promotion or disease prevention by adding a new ingredient(s)

 

G

Glucose: a carbohydrate important in human metabolism, it is absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion

Glycoside: a class of molecules that are bonded to a sugar

I

IgE: an antibody that function in allergic reactions

L

Linoleic Acid: a liquid polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid

Linolenic Acid: type of unsaturated fatty acid, essential in the human diet

Lipid: a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats and fat soluble vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E, and K

Lipoprotein: a complex of lipids and proteins that play a role in the transportation and distribution of lipids

 

M

Macro-nutrient: dietary nutrients that supply energy, including fats, carbohydrates, and proteins

Metabolism: the chemical changes in living cells where energy is provided for processes, activities, and new materials

Micronutrient: vitamins and minerals that are required in small amounts that are essential to health, development and growth.

N

Nitric Oxide: a free radical that is involved in cellular signaling

O

Oleic Acid: omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids

ORAC Value: oxygen radical absorbance capacity value, a unit of measurement for antioxidants

Oxidative Stress: physiological stress on the body that is done by an accumulation of damage from free radicals not neutralized by antioxidants, associated with aging

P

Parasitic Protist: an organism that lives in a host organism and causes harm, a mosquito carrying malaria

Phenolic Acid: a type of polyphenol

Phytonutrient: chemical compounds that naturally occur in plants. They are found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, and teas and are thought to promote health

Phytoecdysteroids: a class of chemicals that plants synthesize and mimic hormones

Polyphenol: antioxidant phytochemical that has the tendency to prevent or neutralize free radical damage

Prebiotic: serves as food for the probiotic bacteria, promoting gut health

Proanthocyandin: class of polyphenols that are found in a variety of plants

Probiotic: live microorganisms that aid in restoring bacterial colonies in the body

Protease Inhibitor: An enzyme that slows the digestion of proteins

Q

Quercetin: a flavonoid found in fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains that act as an antioxidant

R

Rotenone: an odorless and colorless chemical that is used as an insecticide and pesticide

S

Satiety: the state of feeling full

Soy Protein Isolate: protein isolated from soybeans, it is highly refined soy protein typically found in powder form

Synthesis: the production of a combination of parts, elements or compounds

T

Tannin: a polyphenolic compound that can bind to dietary iron to inhibit absorption, and the ability to change proteins.

T cells: also known as T lymphocyte, which is a type of white blood cell. They play a central role in cell immunity and are implicated by the presence of cancer